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Meropenem Eberth


1.  NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT 

Meropenem Eberth 500 mg 
powder for solution for injection or infusion
Meropenem Eberth 1 g 
powder for solution for injection or infusion

2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
 
Meropenem Eberth 500 mg
Each vial contains meropenem trihydrate equivalent to 500 mg anhydrous meropenem.

Meropenem Eberth 1 g
Each vial contains meropenem trihydrate equivalent to 1 g  anhydrous meropenem.

Excipients: 
Each 500 mg vial contains 104 mg sodium carbonate which equates to approximately 2.0 mEq of sodium (approximately 45 mg) 
Each 1 g vial contains 208 mg sodium carbonate which equates to approximately 4.0 mEq of sodium (approximately 90 mg) 

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Powder for Solution for injection or infusion.
A white to yellowish powder.

4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1.  Therapeutic indications

Meropenem Eberth is indicated for treatment of the following infections in adults and children over 3 month of age (see section 4.4 and 5.1) :

Pneumonia, including community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonias
Broncho-pulnonary infections in cystic fibrosis
Complicated urinary tract infections
Complicated intra-abdominal infections
Intra- and post-partum infections
Complicated skin and soft tissue infections
Acute bacterial meningitis 

Meropenem Eberth may be used in management of neutropenic patients with fever that is suspected to be due to a bacterial infection.
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

The table below provide general recommendations for dosing.
The dose of meropenem administered and the duration of treatment should take into account the type of infection to be treated, including its severity, and the clinical response. 
A dose of up to 2 g three times daily in adults and adolescents and a dose of up to 40 mg/kg three times daily in children may be particularly appropriate when treating some types of infections, such as nosocomial infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacacter spp.
Additional consideration for dosing are needed when treating patients with renal insufficiency (see  further below). 

Adults and adolescent
 

Infections

Dose to be administered every 8 hour

Pneumonia, including community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia.

                                                        500 mg or 1 g

Broncho-pulnonary infections in cystic fibrosis

2 g

Complicated urinary tract infections

500 mg or 1 g

Complicated intra-abdominal infections

500 mg or 1 g

Intra- and post-partum infections

500 mg or 1 g

Complicated skin and soft tissue infections

500 mg or 1 g

Acute bacterial meningitis

2 g

Management of febrile neutropenic patients

1 g


Meropenem is usually given by intravenous infusion over approximately 15 to 30 minutes (see section 6.2, 6.3 and 6.6)

Alternatively, doses up to 1 g can be given as an intravenous bolus injection over approximately 5 minutes. There are limited safety data available to support the administration of a 2 g dose in adults as an intravenous bolus injection.  

Renal Impairment 
The dose of adult and adolescents should be adjusted when creatinine clearance is less than 51 ml/min, as shown below. There are limited data to support the application of these dose adjustment for a unit dose of 2 g.

Creatinine clearance

(ml/min)

Dose (based on “unit” dose range of 500 mg or 1 g or 2 g, see table above

Frequency

26-50

one unit dose

every 12 hours

10-25

half of one unit dose

every 12 hours

<10

half of one unit dose

every 24 hours


Meropenem is cleared by haemodialysis and hemofilteration. The required dose should be administered after completion of the hemodialysis cycle.
There are no established dose recommendations for patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. 

Hepatic Impairment 
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic insufficiency (see Section 4.4).

Dose in elderly Patients
No dosage adjustment is required for the elderly with normal renal function or creatinine clearance values above 50 ml/min.

Pediatric population
Children under 3 months of age
The safety and efficacy of meropenem in children under 3 months of age have not been established and the optimal dose regimen has not been identified. However, limited pharmacokinetic data suggest that 20 mg/kg every 8 hours may be an appropriate regimen (see section 5.2)
Children from 3 months to 11 years of age and up to 50 kg body weight 
The recommended dosage regimens are shown in the table below:


Infections

Dose to be administered        every 8 hour

Pneumonia, including community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. 

10 or 20 mg/kg

Broncho-pulnonary infections in cystic fibrosis

40 mg/kg

Complicated urinary tract infections

10 or 20 mg/kg

Complicated intra-abdominal infections

10 or 20 mg/kg

Intra- and post-partum infections

10 or 20 mg/kg

Complicated skin and soft tissue infections

500 mg or 1 g

Acute bacterial meningitis

40 mg/kg

Management of febrile neutropenic patients

20 mg/kg


Children over 50 kg body weight 
The adult dose should be administered 
There is no experience in children with renal impairment.

Meropenem is usually given by intravenous infusion over approximately 15 to 30 minutes (see section 6.2, 6.3 and 6.6). Alternatively, meropenem doses of up to 20 mg/kg may be given as an intravenous bolus over approximately 5 minutes. There are limited safety data available to support the administration of 40 mg/kg dose in children as an intravenous bolus injection.
Appearance of Reconstituted Solution
The reconstituted solution should be clear to slight yellow transparent and should be free of any visible particles.

4.3 Contraindications                                             
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
Hypersensitivity to any other carbapenem antibacterial agents.
Severe hypersensitivity (e.g anaphylatic reactions, severe skin reactions) to any other type of betalactam antibacterial agents (e.g. penicillins or cephalosporins).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
The selection of meropenem to treat an individual patient should take into account the appropriateness of using a carbapenem antibacterial agent based on factors such as severity of the infection, the prevalence of resistance to other suitable antibacterial agents and the risk of selecting for carbapenem-resistant bacteria.   

As with all beta-lactam antibiotics, serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).

Patients who have a history of hypersensitivity to carbapenems, penicillins or other beta-lactam antibiotics may also be hypersensitive to meropenem. Before initiating therapy with meropenem, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.  
If a severe allergic reaction occurs, the medicinal product should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken. 
Antibiotic-associated colitis and pseudomembranous colitis have been reported with nearly all anti-bacterial agents, including meropenem, and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of meropenem (see section 4.8). Discontinuation of therapy with meropenem and the administration of specific treatment for Clostridium difficile should be considered.  Medicinal products that inhibit peristalsis should not be given. 

Seizures have infrequently been reported during treatment with carbapenems, including meropenem (see section 4.8).
Hepatic functions should be closely monitored during treatment with meropenem due to the risk of hepatic toxicity (hepatic dysfunction with cholestasis and cytolysis) (see section 4.8). 

Use in patients with liver disease: patients with pre-existing liver disorders should have liver function monitored during treatment with meropenem. There is no dose adjustment necessary (see section 4.2).
A positive direct or indirect Coombs test may develop during treatment with meropenem.

The concomitant use of meropenem and valproic acid/sodium valproate is not recommended (see section 4.5). 

Meropenem Eberth contains sodium.
Meropenem Eberth 500 mg: This medicinal product contains approximately 2.0 mEq of sodium per 500 mg dose which should be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Meropenem Eberth 1.0 g: This medicinal product contains approximately 4.0 mEq of sodium per 1.0 g dose which should be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet. 

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction     

No specific medicinal product interaction studies other than probenecid were conducted. 
Probenecid competes with meropenem for active tubular secretions and thus inhibits the renal excretion of meropenem with the effect of increasing the elimination half- life and plasma concentration of meropenem. Caution is required if probenecid is co-administered with meropenem.
The potential effect of meropenem on the protein binding of other medicinal products or metabolism has not been studied. However, the protein binding is so low that no interactions with other compounds would be expected on the basis of this mechanism.  
Decreases in blood levels of valproic acid have been reported when it is co-administered with carbapenem agents resulting in a 60-100 % decrease in valproic acid levels in about two days. Due to the rapid onset and the extent of the decrease, co-administration of valproic acid with carbapenem agents is not considered to be manageable and therefore should be avoided (see section 4.4).

Oral anti-coagulants 
Simultaneous administration of antibiotics with warfarin may augment its anti-coagulant effects. There have been many reports of increases in the anti-coagulant effects of orally administered anti-coagulant agents, including warfarin in patients who are concomitantly receiving antibacterial agents. The risk may vary with the underlying infection, age and general status of the patient so that the contribution of the antibiotic to the increase in INR (international normalised ratio) is difficult to assess. It is recommended that the INR should be monitored frequently during and shortly after co-administration of antibiotics with an oral anti-coagulant agent.

4.6 Pregnancy and lactation

Pregnancy
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of meropenem in pregnant women. 
Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3)
As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of meropenem during pregnancy. 

Lactation 
It is unknown whether meropenem is excreted in human milk. Meropenem is detectable at very low concentrations in animal breast milk. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from meropenem therapy taking into account the benefit of therapy for the woman. 

Fertility
No Information is available about the effects of meropenem on fertility. Please consult the doctor or pharmacist to clear any doubts.

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines  
No studies on the effect on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed.

4.8 Undesirable effects                                                      
In a review of 4,872 patients with 5,026 meropenem treatment exposures, meropenem-related adverse reactions most frequently reported were diarrhoea (2.3 %), rash (1.4 %), nausea/vomiting (1.4 %) and injection site inflammation (1.1 %). The most commonly reported meropenem-related laboratory adverse events were thrombocytosis (1.6 %) and increased hepatic enzymes (1.5-4.3 %).

Adverse reactions listed in the table with a frequency of “not known” were not observed in the 2,367 patients who were included in pre-authorisation clinical studies with intravenous and intramuscular meropenem but have been reported during the post-marketing period.  

In the table below all adverse reactions are listed by system organ class and frequency: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. 
 

System Organ Class

 

Frequency

 

Event

 

Infections and infestations

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

Uncommon

oral and vaginal candidiasis

Common

thrombocythaemia

Uncommon

eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia,

leucopenia, neutropenia,

Not known

agranulocytosis,haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorder

Not known

angioedema, anaphylaxis (see

sections 4.3 and 4.4)

Nervous system disorder

 

Common

headache

Uncommon

paraesthesiae

Rare

convulsions (see section 4.4)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

diarrhea, vomiting, nausea,

abdominal pain

Not known

antibiotic-associated  colitis (see section 4.4)

Hepato-biliary disorders

Common

transaminases increased, blood alkaline phosphatase increased, blood  lactate dehydrogenase

 

Uncommon

increased. blood bilirubin increased

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

rash, pruritis

Uncommon

urticaria

Not known

toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens

Johnson syndrome, erythema,multiforme

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon

blood creatinine increased, blood urea increased

General disorders and

administration site conditions

Common

inflammation, pain

Uncommon

thrombophlebitis

Not known

pain at the injection site


4.9 Overdose
Relative overdose may be possible in patients with renal impairment if the dose is not adjusted as described in section 4.2. Limited post-marketing experience indicates that if adverse reactions occur following overdose, they are consistent with the adverse reaction profile described in section 4.8, are generally mild in severity and resolve on withdrawal or dose reduction. Symptomatic treatments should be considered. 

In individuals with normal renal function, rapid renal elimination will occur. 
Haemodialysis will remove meropenem and its metabolite. 


5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: antibacterials for systemic use, carbapenems, ATC code: J01DH02

Mode of action
Meropenem exerts its bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). 
 
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship
Similar to other beta-lactam antibacterial agents, the time that meropenem concentrations exceed the MIC (T>MIC) has been shown to best correlate with efficacy. In preclinical models meropenem demonstrated activity when plasma concentrations exceeded the MIC of the infecting organisms for approximately 40 % of the dosing interval. This target has not been established clinically. 
 
Mechanism of resistance
Bacterial resistance to meropenem may result from: (1) decreased permeability of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria (due to diminished production of porins) (2) reduced affinity of the target PBPs (3) increased expression of efflux pump components, and (4) production of beta-lactamases that can hydrolyse carbapenems.  

Localised clusters of infections due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria have been reported in the European Union. 
There is no target-based cross-resistance between meropenem and agents of the quinolone, aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline classes. However, bacteria may exhibit resistance to more than one class of antibacterials agents when the mechanism involved include impermeability and/or an efflux pump(s).

Breakpoints 
European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) clinical breakpoints for MIC testing are presented below.
EUCAST clinical MIC breakpoints for meropenem (2009-06-05, v 3.1)
O

Organism

Susceptible (S)

(mg/l)

Resistant (R)

(mg/l)

Enterobacteriaceae

≤2

>8

Pseudomonas

≤2

>8

Acinetobacter

≤2

>8

Streptococcus groups A, B, C, G

≤2

>2

Streptococcus pneumoniae1

≤2

>2

Other streptococci

2

2

Enterococcus

---

---

Staphylococcus2

note 3

note 3

Haemophilus influenzae1 and Moraxella catarrhalis

≤2

>2

Neisseria meningitidis2,4

≤ 0.25

≤ 0.25

Gram-positive anaerobes

≤2

>8

Gram-negative anaerobes

≤2

>8

Non-species related breakpoints5

≤2

>8


1 Meropenem breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in meningitis are 0.25/1 mg/L.
2 Strains with MIC values above the S/I breakpoint are rare or not yet reported. The identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests on any such isolate must be repeated and if the result is confirmed the isolate sent to a reference laboratory. Until there is evidence regarding clinical response for confirmed isolates with MIC above the current resistant breakpoint (in italics) they should be reported as resistant.
 3 Susceptibility of staphylococci to meropenem is inferred from the methicillin susceptibility.
 4 Meropenem breakpoints in Neisseria meningitidis relates to meningitis only.
5 Non-species related breakpoints have been determined mainly from PK/PD data and are independent
 of the MIC distributions of specific species. They are for use for species not mentioned in the table and  footnotes.
-- = Susceptibility testing not recommended as the species is a poor target for therapy with the
 medicinal product.

The prevalence of acquired resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable.

The following table of pathogens listed is derived from clinical experience and therapeutic guidelines.

Commonly susceptible species
Gram-positive aerobes
Enterococcus faecalis$
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible) £
Staphylococcus species (methicillin-susceptible) including Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B)
Streptococcus milleri group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius)
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)

Gram-negative aerobes
Citrobacter freudii
Citrobacter koseri
Enterobacter aerogenes
Enterobacter cloacae
Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella oxytoca
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Morganella morganii
Neisseria meningitidis
Proteus mirabilis
Proteus vulgaris
Serratia marcescens

Gram-positive anaerobes
Clostridium perfringens
Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus
Peptostreptococcus species (including P. micros, P anaerobius, P. magnus)

Gram-negative anaerobes
Bacteroides caccae
Bacteroides fragilis group
Prevotella bivia
Prevotella disiens

Species for which acquired resistance may be a problem
Gram-positive aerobes
Enterococcus faecium$†

Gram-negative aerobes
Acinetobacter species
Burkholderia cepacia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Inherently resistant organisms
Gram-negative aerobes
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Legionella species

Other micro-organisms
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydophila psittaci
Coxiella burnetii
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

 $ Species that show natural intermediate susceptibility
 £All methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to meropenem
 Resistance rate > 50% in one or more EU countries.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
In healthy subjects the mean plasma half-life is approximately 1 hour; the mean volume of distribution is approximately 0.25 l/kg (11-27 l) and the mean clearance is 287 ml/min at 250 mg falling to 205 ml/min at 2 g. Doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg doses infused over 30 minutes give mean Cmax values of approximately 23, 49 and 115 μg/ml respectively, corresponding AUC values were 39.3, 62.3 and 153 μg.h/ml. After infusion over 5 minutes Cmax values are 52 and 112 μg/ml after 500 and 1000 mg doses respectively. When multiple doses are administered 8-hourly to subjects with normal renal function, accumulation of meropenem does not occur.
A study of 12 patients administered meropenem 1000 mg 8 hourly post-surgically for intra-abdominal infections showed a comparable Cmax and half-life to normal subjects but a greater volume of distribution 27 l.

Distribution
The average plasma protein binding of meropenem was approximately 2 % and was independent of concentration. After rapid administration (5 minutes or less) the pharmacokinetics are biexponential but this is much less evident after 30 minutes infusion. Meropenem has been shown to penetrate well into several body fluids and tissues: including lung, bronchial secretions, bile, cerebrospinal fluid, gynaecological tissues, skin, fascia, muscle, and peritoneal exudates.

Metabolism
Meropenem is metabolised by hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring generating a microbiologically inactive metabolite. In vitro meropenem shows reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis by human dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I) compared to imipenem and there is no requirement to co-administer a DHP-I inhibitor.

Elimination
Meropenem is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidneys; approximately 70 % (50 –75 %) of the dose is excreted unchanged within 12 hours. A further 28% is recovered as the microbiologically inactive metabolite. Faecal elimination represents only approximately 2% of the dose. The measured renal clearance and the effect of probenecid show that meropenem undergoes both filtration and tubular secretion.

Renal insufficiency
Renal impairment results in higher plasma AUC and longer half-life for meropenem. There were AUC increases of 2.4 fold in patients with moderate impairment (CrCL 33-74 ml/min), 5 fold in severe impairment (CrCL 4-23 ml/min) and 10 fold in haemodialysis patients (CrCL <2 ml/min) when compared to healthy subjects (CrCL >80 ml/min). The AUC of the microbiologically inactive ring opened metabolite was also considerably increased in patients with renal impairment. Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with moderate and severe renal impairment (see section 4.2). 

Meropenem is cleared by haemodialysis with clearance during haemodialysis being approximately 4 times higher that in anuric patients.

Hepatic insufficiency
A study in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis shows no effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of meropenem after repeated doses.

Adult patients
Pharmacokinetic studies performed in patients have not shown significant pharmacokinetic differences versus healthy subjects with equivalent renal function. A population model developed from data in 79 patients with intra-abdominal infection or pneumonia, showed a dependence of the central volume on weight and the clearance on creatinine clearance and age.

Paediatrics
The pharmacokinetics in infants and children with infection at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg showed Cmax values approximating to those in adults following 500, 1000 and 2000 mg doses, respectively. Comparison showed consistent pharmacokinetics between the doses and half-lives similar to those observed in adults in all but the youngest subjects (<6 months t1/2 1.6 hours). The mean meropenem clearance values were 5.8 ml/min/kg (6-12 years), 6.2 ml/min/kg (2-5 years), 5.3 ml/min/kg (6- 23 months) and 4.3 ml/min/kg (2-5 months). Approximately 60 % of the dose is excreted in urine over 12 hours as meropenem with a further 12 % as metabolite. Meropenem concentrations in the CSF of children with meningitis are approximately 20 % of concurrent plasma levels although there is significant inter-individual variability.

The pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates requiring anti-infective treatment showed greater clearance in neonates with higher chronological or gestational age with an overall average half-life of 2.9 hours. Monte Carlo simulation based on a population PK model showed that a dose regimen of 20 mg/kg 8 hourly achieved 60 %T>MIC for P. aeruginosa in 95 % of pre-term and 91 % of full term neonates.

Elderly
Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years) have shown a reduction in plasma clearance, which correlated with age-associated reduction in creatinine clearance, and a smaller reduction in non-renal clearance. No dose adjustment is required in elderly patients, except in cases of moderate to severe renal impairment (see section 4.2).

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Animal studies indicate that meropenem is well tolerated by the kidney. Histological evidence of renal tubular damage was seen in mice and dogs only at doses of 2000 mg/kg and above after a single administration and above and in monkeys at 500 mg/kg in a 7-day study.

Meropenem is generally well tolerated by the central nervous system. Effects were seen in acute toxicity studies in rodent at doses exceeding 1000 mg/kg.

The IV LD50 of Meropenem in rodents is greater that 2000 mg/kg.
In repeat dose studies of up to 6 months duration only minor effects were seen including a decrease in red cell parameters in dogs.
There was no evidence of mutagenic potential in a conventional test battery and no evidence of reproductive toxicity including teratogenic potential in studies in rats up to 750 mg/kg and in monkeys up to 360 mg/kg.
There was increased evidence of abortions at 500 mg/kg in a preliminary study in monkeys.
There was no evidence of increased sensitivity to Meropenem in juveniles compared to adult animals.
The intravenous formulation was well tolerated in animal studies.
The sole metabolite of meropenem had a similar profile of toxicity in animal studies.

6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS

6.1 List of excipients
Meropenem Eberth 500 mg : anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Meropenem Eberth 1 g : anhydrous sodium carbonate.

6.2 Incompatibilities
This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

6.3 Shelf life
2 years.

After reconstitution:
The reconstituted solutions for intravenous injection or infusion should be used immediately. The time interval between the beginning of reconstitution and the end of intravenous injection or infusion should not exceed one hour.

6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Do not freeze the reconstituted solution.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Meropenem Eberth 500 mg  
674 mg powder in  a 10 ml Type 1 glass vial with stopper (grey butyl rubber with an aluminium caps 
Meropenem 1 g  Eberth
1348 mg powder in  a 20 ml Type 1 glass vial with stopper (grey butyl rubber with an aluminium caps 

The medicinal product is supplied in pack sizes of 10 vials. 
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
How to prepare this medicine 
i. Wash your hands and dry them very well. Prepare a clean working area. 
ii. Remove the Meropenem Eberth bottle (vial) from the packaging. Check the vial and the expiry date printed on the box and the vial label. Check that the vial is intact and has not been damaged. 
iii. Remove the coloured cap and clean the grey rubber stopper with an alcohol wipe. Allow the rubber stopper to dry. 
iv. Connect a new sterile needle to a new sterile syringe, without touching the ends. 
v. Draw up the recommended amount of sterile ‘Water for Injections’ into the syringe. The amount of liquid that you need is shown below: 
Meropenem 500 mg Powder for Solution for injection or infusion, vial has a size of 10 ml and can be  reconstituted with 10 ml Water for Injections. 
Meropenem 1 g Powder for Solution for injection or infusion, vial has a size of 20 ml and can be  reconstituted with 20 ml Water for Injections.

Dose of Meropenem Eberth Amount of ‘Water for Injections’ needed for dilution
500 mg (milligrams)  10 ml (millilitres)
1 g (gram)  20 ml
1.5 g          30 ml
2 g          40 ml

Please note: If your prescribed dose of Meropenem Eberth is more than 1g, you will need to use more than 1vial of Meropenem Eberth. You can then draw the liquid in the vials into the one syringe. 
vi. Put the needle of the syringe through the center of the grey rubber stopper and inject the recommended amount of Water for Injections into the vial or vials of Meropenem Eberth.
vii. Remove the needle from the vial and shake the vial well for about 5 seconds, or until all the powder has dissolved. Clean the grey rubber stopper once more with a new alcohol wipe and allow the rubber stopper to dry. 
viii. With the plunger of the syringe pushed fully into the syringe, put the needle back through the grey rubber stopper. You must then hold both the syringe and the vial and turn the vial upside down. 
ix. Keeping the end of the needle in the liquid, pull back the plunger and draw all the liquid in the vial into the syringe. 
x. Remove the needle and syringe from the vial and throw the empty vial away in a safe place. 
xi. Hold the syringe upright, with the needle pointing upwards. Tap the syringe so that any bubbles in the liquid rise to the top of the syringe.  
xii. Remove any air in the syringe by gently pushing the plunger until all the air has gone.  
xiii. If you are using Meropenem Eberth at home, dispose of any needles and infusion lines that you have used in an appropriate way. If your doctor decides to stop your treatment, dispose of any unused Meropenem Eberth in an appropriate way
Please note:
An Intravenous infusion of meropenem may be prepared by directly constituting the contents of the vials with 0.9 % sodium chloride or 5% glucose solutions for infusion. Please follow the instructions that stated below:

1. To Meropenem 500 mg add 10 ml of the infusion diluent, then shake well to reconstitute and then add this to the Diluent infusion bag. 
2. To Meropenem 1 g add 20 ml of the infusion Diluent, then shake well to reconstitute and then add this to the Diluent infusion bag. 
The following concentration is achieved in the infusion bag when the infusion is prepared : 

Dose of Meropenem Eberth Infusion Diluent Resulting concentration of infusion
500 mg 100 ml 0.9% NaCl 5 mg/ ml
500 mg 100 ml 5% Glucose 5 mg/ ml
1 gram 100 ml 0.9% NaCl 10 mg/ ml
1 gram 100 ml 5% Glucose 10 mg/ ml

Appearance of Reconstituted Solution
The reconstituted solution should be clear to slight yellow transparent and should be free of any visible particles.

The re-constituted solution in the vial should be shaken to dissolve the entire contents of the vial.

Injection
Meropenem to be used for bolus intravenous injection should be constituted with sterile water for injection as mentioned above.

Infusion
For intravenous infusion, meropenem vials may be directly constituted with 0.9 % sodium chloride or 5% glucose solutions for infusion as described above.

Each vial is for single use only.
Standard aseptic techniques should be used for solution preparation and administration.
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Dr. Friedrich Eberth Arzneimittel GmbH
Am Bahnhof 2  
92289 Ursensollen
Germany  
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER(S)
Meropenem Eberth 500 mg – 15/0589/11-S
Meropenem Eberth  1 g – 15/0590/11-S
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION/RENEWAL OF THE AUTHORISATION
2012
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT                                                                                                   
06.07.2011

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